Propionate oxaloacetate

Alcoholic hypoglycemia is due to inhibition of gluconeogenesis by ethanol and alcoholic ketosis is due to accumulation of beta hydroxy butyrate by increased concentrations of NADH. Thus alcoholic hypoglycemia and alcoholic ketosis are the sequential events occurring one after another in alcoholism and liver can replenish its function on supply of glucose and the most salient feature of liver is that changes in liver can be seen only after chronic alcoholism associated which is also with malnutrition. Further research is required to know the mechanism in liver that helps to maintain the reduced hepatic redox state during alcoholism longer than expected.

Global control of gluconeogenesis is mediated by glucagon ( released when blood glucose is low ); it triggers phosphorylation of enzymes and regulatory proteins by Protein Kinase A (a cyclic AMP regulated kinase) resulting in inhibition of glycolysis and stimulation of gluconeogenesis. Recent studies have shown that the absence of hepatic glucose production has no major effect on the control of fasting plasma glucose concentration. Compensatory induction of gluconeogenesis occurs in the kidneys and intestine, driven by glucagon , glucocorticoids , and acidosis. [28]

If OAA is converted to PEP by mitochondrial PEPCK, it is transported to the cytosol where it is a direct substrate for gluconeogenesis and nothing further is required. Transamination of OAA to aspartate allows the aspartate to be transported to the cytosol where the reverse transamination occurs yielding cytosolic OAA. This transamination reaction requires continuous transport of glutamate into, and 2-oxoglutatrate (α-ketoglutarate) out of, the mitochondrion. Therefore, this process is limited by the availability of these other substrates. Either of these latter two reactions will predominate when the substrate for gluconeogenesis is lactate. Whether mitochondrial decarboxylation or transamination occurs is a function of the availability of PEPCK or transamination intermediates.

Propionate oxaloacetate

propionate oxaloacetate

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